Republic of India
gana mana, composed by Rabindranath Tagore(Click
Here to Read)
adaptation of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Emperor Ashok, the emblem
depicts three lions (from the four which stand back-to-back looking
to north, south, east and west on the original capital), and part of
the frieze on the abacus i.e. the Wheel of the Law (Dharma) in the
centre flanked by a horse and a bull. The bell-shaped lotus which
supports the original capital has been omitted and instead,
inscribed below the abacus are the words "Satyameva Jayate" - "Truth
Alone Triumphs" in the Devnagari script.
India’s flag is a horizontal tricolour with deep saffron above,
white in the middle and dark green below, in equal proportion. The
saffron signifies the spirit of sacrifice, the white represents
purity and the green fertility. In the centre of the white band is a
navy blue wheel with 24 spokes, signifying progress. The width to
length ratio of the flag is two to three.
on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of
365 days, the national calendar has a permanent correspondence with
the Gregorian calendar with 1st Chaitra falling on 22nd March (21st
March in leap years).
Structure of the
of 28 states and 7 Union territories with the Central Government
based in New Delhi.
Multi-party parliamentary democracy, based on universal adult
franchise, largest democracy in the world
with the Upper House known as the Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
and the Lower House known as the Lok Sabha (Council of the People).
by United Progressive Alliance (UPA) led by Indian National Congress
Head of State
President Shri Pranab Mukherjee
Head of Government
Minister Dr Manmohan Singh (http://pmindia.nic.in)
(Indian Standard Time) IST is equal to GMT + 5 hours and 30 minutes.
With reference to Sudan, IST is minus 2 and 1/2 hour.
million square kilometres
continental climate. Spring from March-April, summer from
May-October, winter from November-February. Tropical monsoon from
June-August, and post-monsoon or north-east monsoon season
(Oct-Dec). Most of the rainfall is brought by the south-west
monsoon. Owing to the geographical diversity of India, regional
climatic conditions in the extreme north, east and west can be
shares borders with Pakistan and Afghanistan to the north-west,
China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north, Myanmar and Bangladesh to the
east. Sri Lanka is separated from the southernmost tip of India by
the narrow Palk Straits and the Gulf of Mannar.
forty percent of India’s 1.027 billion people live in urban centers,
the four largest being Delhi (12 million), Mumbai (16 million),
Kolkata (13.2 million), and Chennai (6.4 million). Other cities like
Pune, Hyderabad, Bangalore, etc are rapidly developing into major
centres of commerce and industry.
billion (2001 census);
Current growth rate 1.2% per annum
Lifespan: Male 62.3 years, female 65.3 years
Death rate: 8.5 per 1000
is the official language, but English is also widely used. In
addition, 22 languages are recognized by the Constitution of India.
There are about 1,500 dialects.
is a secular country with no state religion. Major religions include
Hinduism (82%), Islam (12-15%), Christianity (2.3%), Sikhism (1.9%),
Buddhism (0.8%) and Jainism (0.4%)
Rupee (1 Rupee = 100
paise). In May 2010, one US dollar equals approximately 45
April to 31st March.
US$ 1.2 trillion
GDP (PPP): US$ 6 trillion
(third largest in world)
Per capita GDP: US$ 5,500
GDP Growth rate (2009): 6.5%
230 million tonnes annually (world’s largest producer of tea, milk,
sugar, rice, butter and wheat - Indian food grains exported to over
National bird: Peacock
National animal: Tiger